I hope to return to posting more regularly in 2016. Happy holidays to all!
Wednesday, December 2, 2015
I hope to return to posting more regularly in 2016. Happy holidays to all!
Monday, March 30, 2015
Mary Hoffman's 1991 picture book Amazing Grace tells the story of Grace, who loves stories and especially loves acting them out. Filled with imagination and dramatic flair, Grace decides that she will play the part of Peter Pan when her teacher tells the class that they are going to perform the play.
One student tells her, "You can't be Peter -- that's a boy's name." And then another student informs her, "You can't be Peter Pan. He isn't black." But Grace keeps her hand up to indicate that she wants to play this role.
When Grace goes home and tells her mother and grandmother what happened at school, they tell her that she can be Peter Pan if she wants to do so. "You can be anything you want, Grace, if you put your mind to it," her grandmother says.
Soon after, Grace's grandmother takes her to the ballet to see a African American ballerina play Juliet in Romeo and Juliet. After the ballet, Grace dances around her room, telling herself, "I can be anything I want."
After the class meets for auditions, everyone in the class votes for Grace to be Peter Pan. The play is a great success and Grace is an "amazing Peter Pan."
This is a wonderful story for inspiring discussions about race, gender, role models, the limits to our ambitions, and the importance of imagination. Some of the questions students have asked when we've read this book together are:
Why do other students tell Grace she can't be Peter Pan because she's black and a girl?
Is Grace's grandmother right that Grace can be anything she wants to be?
Why did seeing the ballerina make Grace more confident that she could be Peter Pan?
Why do we think that appearance is so important?
Friday, March 13, 2015
This week at Children's Hospital's school, in my weekly session with the older students, I facilitated an activity adapted from an exercise created by my colleague David Shapiro.
Here is a brief description of the activity (in a larger class, this is done in small groups, and there are dozens of characters -- the exercise can be found in David's book Plato Was Wrong!):
We are all in a lifeboat, and our boat is sinking. In order to save everyone, we have to sacrifice one person in the boat, otherwise all of us will drown. I assigned each student a couple of characters, who they will play in a lifeboat. The following are some of the characters:
· A 22-year-old mailroom clerk in a large law firm, who is planning to get her law degree when she graduates college. She is not married and has no children.
· A 45-year-old Certified Public Accountant, who is married with two two teenaged children, and is an active community and church volunteer.
· A 12-year-old student in 6th grade, who is the president of his class and hopes to be a doctor when he grows up.
· A 55-year-old homeless person who has been out of work for 10 years, is not married and has no children.
· A 26-year-old world-famous rock star with fans all around the world, who is single with no children, and has a bad drug habit.
· A 6-month-old baby who is her parents’ first child and the first grandchild for her grandparents.
· A 30-year-old police officer, who is married with 2 young children.
· A 28-year-old welfare recipient who hasn’t worked in 3 years, and has 6 children, none of whom live with her.
The key is that the group has to work together to decide who will be sacrificed, and to agree on the principles, or reasons, that the person who is to be sacrificed is chosen. And then, most importantly, the person who is to be sacrificed has to be able to articulate why he or she was chosen, and in particular, the principle that was used to make that choice.
We began with considering what principles should guide the decision. The students came up with the following:
1. The more of your life you have already lived, the more likely your life should be sacrificed
2. The more successful your life has been and is likely to continue to be, the less likely your life should be sacrificed
3. The more people with whom you have relationships and who depend on you, the less likely your life should be sacrificed
We then launched into trying to decide who would be sacrificed.
I have done this exercise in many classrooms. For the first time, the conversation revolved not around the characters trying to save themselves, but offering to sacrifice themselves. The young girl who was playing the famous rock star character, for example, said, "I have accomplished all or most of what I'll ever accomplish in my life, and my drug problem means I might not live very long anyway, so I should sacrifice myself." When asked about the fans who would mourn, she said, "For them I'll become a legend. They will be sad at first but they'll also be glad I sacrificed my life for others, and they'll never forget me."
Then the young girl whose character was the homeless person said, "No, I should jump off the boat. My life hasn't been a success, and I've lived a lot of it already. I'm the oldest person in the boat and I have no family." The rock star responded, "But you could still make something of your life." Quietly, the girl playing the homeless person said, "This is the most important thing I'll ever do."
We discussed this for a long time and most of the group agreed that the homeless person should be sacrificed. Finally, at the end of our time together, I told the group that a rescue helicopter was now coming, but only one individual can be saved. Who should it be?
The group quickly agreed that it should be the 12-year-old, who had his whole life ahead. Unlike the baby, one student observed, the 12-year-old knew what was going on in the boat and so would not suffer the emotional pain of knowing he was likely to die.
The discussion was rich in insight, and afterward I reflected about whether the special challenges these children face provides them with an especially keen awareness of the complexity of moral problems, and particularly those related to life and death.
I'm feeling very privileged to have the opportunity to work with these students.
Thursday, January 22, 2015
Written by Deborah Wiles and illustrated by Jerome Lagarrigue, Freedom Summer tells the story of a friendship between two boys in the early 1960s in Mississippi: Joe, who is white, and John Henry, who is African American. John Henry's mother works for Joe's family. The boys love to swim and they swim together in the creek, because the town pool is closed to John Henry. When the boys want ice pops, Joe goes into the store to buy them, because John Henry is not allowed into the store.
After the passing of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the town pool is required to be open to everyone, but when the boys arrive at the pool, the pool is being emptied and filled with asphalt by a group of African American workers, including John Henry's older brother. Shocked, the two boys watch until the men finish.
When the worker have left, John Henry says, "White folks don't want colored folks in their pool." Joe says, "I didn't want to swim in this old pool anyway. "I did," John Henry responds. "I wanted to swim in this pool. I want to do everything you can do." Joe doesn't know what to say. He thinks to himself, "I want to go to the Dairy Dip with John Henry, sit down and share root beer floats. . . . I want to see this town with John Henry's eyes." At the end of the story, the boys decide to walk together into the store to buy ice pops.
I read this book with two classes this week, one third grade and the other fourth. In both classes, students asked questions about why the white people in the town would want to fill the tar with pool rather than share it with African Americans, why African American workers were filling up the pool when white people were the ones who wanted to close the pool, and why the white people in the story thought they were superior to African Americans. In our discussions, the children talked about why certain differences among people, like skin color, lead to some groups being oppressed, how people's choices can be constrained, and how the history of slavery in this country makes racism difficult to eradicate.
Some other questions that are raised by the story:
Why is the book called Freedom Summer? Who is free in the story? Who is not?
Are Joe and John Henry friends?
Why does John Henry eat in the kitchen at Joe's house, while Joe and his family eat in the dining room?
Why isn't John Henry allowed in the store? Who decides?
Who controls the town pool? Why is it filled with asphalt after the law requires it to be open to everyone?
Do Joe and John Henry experience the filling of the pool in the same way?
Why don't "white folks want colored folks in their pool?" Why is the pool considered the white folks' pool?
Do people have a right to swim in the town pool?
What does Joe mean when he thinks that he "wants to see the town with John Henry's eyes?" Is this possible?
When the boys walk into the store at the end of the story, who is taking the greater risk? Why?